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Introduction to Golf Balls

February 12th, 2015 by Kelly Rodriguez

Nowadays, the governing body of every sport strictly imposes rules and regulations encompassing the athlete’s behavior up to the playing equipment he uses. In fact, even a sport that involves no contact between the players such as golf requires more rigid rules when it comes to equipment as compared to other sports.


Standardization of Golf Ball


Golf balls and golf clubs must first be tested by the two governing bodies of golf. These are the United States Golf Association whose in-charge with golf in the US and Mexico and The R&A, a group of companies that rule the said sport throughout the rest of the world.


Golf BallsIn contrast, the testing and approval of golf clubs are less restrictive than those of golf balls. You can use any kind of golf ball for leisure or practice. However, a specific weight and diameter standards must be met for tournaments. If you are caught using a golf ball that didn’t pass the set standards, you will be given a penalty. The standard weight is 45.93 grams or 1.62 oz while the standard diameter is 42.67 mm or 1.68 in. Aside from this attributes, the performance of a golf ball is tested as well. Specifically, the authorities in golf will approve the symmetry limits, distance, and velocity of a ball.


Early Forms of Golf Ball


The earliest known golf balls were carved from wood. These were used in the first games of golf in the 16th century. In the first quarter of the succeeding century, small balls covered in cow or horsehide was stuffed with goose feather. The feather-stuffed balls were more preferred than wood-made balls because these were easier to make.


The popularity of the feather-stuffed balls lasted for more than a century. However, it was dethroned by another invention in the mid-1880s. A natural ingredient was again used, in the form of gutta sap. Gutta is a type of tree common in East Asian countries. The sap was shaped into a ball and the product was a rubber-like golf ball. This innovation became more popular than feather-stuffed balls because gutta-made balls, also known as Guttie, were better shaped.


After a decade, these early forms of golf balls were made using machines. But it had a disadvantage. Gutties were not as efficient as feather-stuffed balls when it comes to flight. Innovations were made after 10 more years. This time, a golf ball was covered in thread.


In the early 1990s, balls were modified by having lump-like protrusions. The change was supposed to enhance the ball’s flight. This change also led to the presence of dimples in the balls used in golf these days. The dimpled ones were found out to be better in enhancing the ball’s flight.




The Rules of Golf was produced and issued by the USGA and The R&A. Both of these organizations reserve the right to interpret the contents of the Rules of Golf. The rules for the ball are provided in Rule 5 of the said rule book. The Rules and Equipment Committee of The R&A collaborates with USGA for the revision and interpretation the Rules of Golf.


Aside from the aforementioned physical attributes of a golf ball, it must be listed as one of the pre-approved golf balls first. Adding an element to enhance the ball’s flight is not allowed. It will cost a player a penalty in a game.


Any deformation or damage in a golf ball will be declared unsuitable for play. A replacement without penalty serves as a solution. You or your competitors may argue a deformed golf ball. However, you should tell your competitors first that you are going to inspect your golf ball. In addition, you have to indicate the location before you lift it. You are not allowed to clean the ball as well. If you missed one of these requisites, you will be given a one-stroke penalty.


There are additional rules for golf balls in the succeeding parts of the rule book. If you want to get proficient in this spot, you have to master the inspection of the balls. Otherwise, you may be given two-stroke penalty if you substituted a good golf ball with an unfit one.

Custom Badge Lanyards – A Must Have Item

February 4th, 2015 by Alvin Cox

There are many reasons why you would like to purchase and have custom badge lanyards, and they are all legitimate or acceptable to anyone. Customized and personalized badge lanyards are very well sought after items by teenagers these days either for personal, scholastic, practical or ornamental use. You can also find a lot of personalized lanyards available in almost any supermarket, department store, sporting store and any store which sells personally accessories. This is so because custom lanyards have become invaluable these days that there are barely people who can’t get by without one in this digital and computer ages we are currently living in.


Badge lanyard, whether personalized, purchased and custom badge lanyards have been with us through the centuries. Since the 15th century when they were named first as badge lanyards or at least that is when they were fist remembered as such. Lanyards have given us their functionality and usage to exploit for a long time, even way back before the 15th century. Custom badge lanyard may have been known before in any other names, but their primary purpose and function has remained almost always the same. Through the years they have amazed and inspired us with their worth and in return we customized, personalized, and digitized them in so many ways than one.


badge lanyardsMainly, the function of lanyards is to keep an item of yours from falling, dropped on the ground and preventing your item from getting lost. Then again it doesn’t stop there for you have the freedom to personalize your lanyards and custom badge lanyards come with many other functions with them. By personalizing your badge lanyards you can use different materials other than the most commonly used according to your specifications and needs. While light materials are best for everyday use and small items like ID cards, flash drives and other small things, you might as well opt for paracords or something much stronger for use in rugged terrain and extreme activities for example in badge lanyards for tactical pistols. Custom badge lanyard works better because they are made accordingly to your specific needs.


Custom badge lanyard come in variable sizes and materials which are chosen for specific needs and criteria. You can have small and short badge lanyards made from nylon strips, craft lace or any light materials which are suitable for ID cards, pass cards, keys, small mobile phones and other lightweight devices. Paracords and other heavier, rugged and stronger materials are best for heavier items like cameras, pistols, knives and other items of the sort.


Custom lanyards can either be long, which can allow its bearer enough space and slack to be able to use their items like keys even without detaching the lanyard from the belt loop of their pants. While others would prefer to have them shorter in order that it will not get in the way when the items are used like the badge lanyards for camping knives. With much better technology and materials like plastic, custom lanyards can now have another feature which is really functional and liked by their bearers. Quick release buttons, snap hook and other devices which make it easier to attach and detach are now the most sought after features of custom badge lanyard.


These features coupled with other devices like micro led lights or luminescent materials make custom badge lanyards worth every penny you spend in purchasing them. With hundreds of shops now sprouting everywhere offering the personalization and fast production of lanyards, you can always find it easy to purchase lanyard made according to your specifications and purpose. It is now possible to make custom badge lanyard fast and of good quality even if they are personalized or printed, without compromising quality and durability.


If the aesthetic features of lanyards does not attract you, the features of custom badge lanyard will surely catch your attention and fascination or at least it has mine, for a long time now.

Basic Materials of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)

February 2nd, 2015 by Dolores McLaughlin

Printed circuit boards make it possible to create modern gadgets such as Blu-Ray players, cellphones and computers. Before the PCB was invented in the 1950s, electronic devices were hand wired. Hand wiring can only go so far, and cannot handle larger and more complex devices. With the advent of PCBs, electronic devices advanced by leaps and bounds.

PCB assembly started with the use of Masonite and other related products. Today, assembly uses Teflon, woven glass polyester and fiberglass and fiberglass variants. A lot of research has been done to discover what other materials can be effectively used for manufacturing PCB. The materials used or the assembly of PCB are very important because it determines how much power and work will the PCB be able to carry out. It can actually make or break the PCB function. For example, fiberglass materials are better equipped with a rapid electronic traffic without breaking down. Also, fiberglass is able to withstand the high temperatures and pressures.

PcbnetTypically, assembly uses temperatures of 170˚C and higher. The material used should be able to handle that level of heat. Materials should also be CAF-resistant. CAF means Conductive Anodic Filaments, which can compromise the electronic components and circuitry of the PCB. CAF often forms on the internal layers of the PCB. Also, materials should also have a good FR level- that is, Fire Retardant characteristic. Not only should the circuit board be able to withstand heat during PCB assembly process, it should also be able to resist fires during the actual use of the PCB in the various machines and devices it will be placed into.

The most common PCB material used is glass fiber epoxy laminate or the FR4. The standard 1.60 mm FR4 has 8 layers of glass fiber materials (7628). This material is designed for the manufacture of multi-layered high-density printed circuit boards. This is best for surface mount multi-layers, direct chip attach, wireless and automotive communications, and MCM-Ls.

Another material used is the CEM-3. It is very similar to FR4. Unlike the woven glass fabric of FR4, flies type of glass fabric is used. This material is milky white and very smooth.

Two circuit boards are recently gaining popularity – the Flex and the Rigid-flex circuit boards. These newer circuit board materials have very unique properties. They can be twisted, folded and wrapped around small or tight packaging areas. Majority of Flex materials in PCB assembly use Kapton as raw material. This is a film based on polyamide developed by DuPont Corporation. Kapton is heat resistant, constantly uses low electricity (3.6), and has good dimensional stability.

Where the PCB is used for determines the material to be used for the board. If PCBs are used for devices that utilize fast circuit speeds, such as those in wireless communications, high frequency circuit boards are needed. Materials used for PCB assembly are carefully chosen according to the purpose for which the end product is to be used. Materials need to be able to support the high demand.

Some circuit boards use reinforcement in order to improve their function, stability and durability. Reinforcements include Teflon (PTFE), quartz and Kevlar. All these aim to ensure that the PCB will be able to withstand high frequency and heat generated by the device it operates.

Other PCB assembly materials include laminate (cores) materials that are fully cured. Both sides of the board are already coated with copper. Pre-peg materials, called B-Stage, are basically glass fabrics that have been pre-impregnated with resin, but no yet fully cured. Then pre-peg materials are the ones often inserted between stacks of cores. The pre-peg melts during the lamination process, which then acts as bonds between the layers.

Helpful Tips When Inspecting Storage Containers

January 30th, 2015 by Crystal Powers

A lot of businesses and different individuals use storage containers for a number of purposes. Although people do not need them as often as possible, companies that are into production do need storage units to transport their finished products from their warehouse going to the market. It is essential that buyers also understand the reason why they need the unit and how often they are going to need it. Before you can make up your mind to buy or rent a storage box, it is always wise to take time to inspect it. Even though it can be a daunting task to inspect a massive storage unit, it is not actually difficult as it sounds. Here are some helpful tips that you can follow to make inspection easier for you.


Storage containersAlways check the doors by swinging them in and out. This will enable you to see if they are strong and sturdy. Check out also if the containers make any unusual sound whenever you open or shut the door. If you are using second hand containers, it may need a bit of extra effort to open and close the door. Although this is not a sign of a problem, you have to make sure that the doors are aligned. If not, then this is definitely something that you need to look into.


Check the CSC container inspection plate that must be present in all storage containers. This should contain all the basic information about the storage boxes. Typically, it comprises of the date and year of manufacture, the manufacturer, and the model of the units. These are important information that will serve as your guideline. Based on the date of manufacture, you will be able to determine the current condition of your storage units.


Make sure that you take a look from the inside. Inspect the containers from within as you take a look into the walls and the ceilings to see if they are in good condition. Keep an eye on scratches and rust to see if it is well kept. Rust can spread on the units and can make a hole in them so you can see light that enters in the storage boxes.

It is also important that you check the corners of the containers for any signs of rust. This is a red flag that you have to be wary of when you intend to buy or rent storage units for whatever purpose you have in mind. You also need to look for marks and any other signs that indicate trouble to make sure that you are not deceived or you don’t buy storage units in bad state.


You also need to have a look of the inside of the storage containers. This will help you see any dents or dings as well as rusted areas in the storage units. It is very important to check them from the top since there is a big chance of high exposure to sunlight. You should also check if the roof is still in good condition and sturdy. You can do this by applying force with your hand on the walls to see if they are stable and strong. If the storage boxes have loose components, they can be more prone to accidents and damage.

You will find a number of storage containers that can be for rent or for sale from different dealers. You need to look for a reputable dealer that you can trust. He will be able to recommend containers based on your requirements so you will feel safe to buy or rent storage boxes for your needs.


Employee Engagement Survey and Technology: Working Hand in Hand

January 29th, 2015 by Clyde Tate

Although employee engagement is something that you cannot tell a computer program or software to do for you, technology still has an important role in boosting the effectiveness of engagement. One way that this is clearly visible is in the conduct of an employee engagement survey. Where old methods used written questionnaires with the results manually tallied and tabulated, surveys today are mostly done online or with the use of a software that is specifically designed for this purpose. This new system comes with a number of benefits, such as:

• Smooth, easy, and fast conduct of survey.

Surveys can be emailed to individual employees to give them the option to do that on their free time. This is far way efficient than hording them in a room and handing them individual papers to fill up. As long as the deadline of the employee engagement survey is clearly indicated, you can give out the online forms or links well in advance. All entries are then automatically saved for analysis later on. has surveyed millions of employees around the world.

• Quick reporting of survey findings.

Employee engagementEngagement survey software can quickly analyze, tabulate, chart, and present data in an orderly and statistical manner for easy comprehension. All results can then be delivered through email or by giving access to the key personnel and managers on the platform. Fast reporting of survey findings is essential so that necessary actions are also instantly designed and implemented, thus emphasizing and addressing the prime purpose of the employee engagement survey.

• Customized results to contain relevant data.

Results can easily be customized using computer programs or software so that only relevant data are provided to certain managers or supervisors. For example, the purchasing department definitely cannot act on the problems in the manufacturing area, hence, there is no use showing them results from that group. This feature also enhances confidentiality of results.

• Direct comparison with previous results

The good thing with using computer programs for such survey is that you can easily pull out previous results for comparison. With just one look, key personnel can see if there are improvements after the implementation of previous action plans or none. This will help them come up with new ideas to address certain issues. At the same time, summarized results can give help them see how their group is doing compared to others. If group A, for instance, shows much improved engagement or satisfaction from its staff, then other groups can learn from the techniques implemented on that group in order to improve theirs.

• Configuration according to different variables.

Results can be configured according to different variables, such as by priority, score, and performance. Knowing what problems to prioritize, for example, will be a great aid in devising and scheduling an action plan.

• Information in summarized and detailed views.

All results can be presented in summarized and detailed view. By looking at the summary, managers can make quick assessments on which areas of the organization need more attention and improvement. If there are questions regarding the results of the employee engagement survey, they can also delve deeper into the details to understand the context of the results and see what factors have contributed to it.

• Recording and monitoring of action plans.

The same software can be used in designing, recording, and monitoring the action plans. Schedules and deadlines can be keyed in, with regular updates to be done to see how far the action plan has been implemented. This will drive concerned individuals to make and complete changes.

If all of the steps involved in conducting surveys, reporting, and implementation of changes were done manually on paper, this is going to take so much time that the problems may have resolved themselves or have worsened before anything has been done, and that will not improve engagement at all. Fortunately, technology has come to the rescue to make engagement surveys more effective and results-oriented.